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Monday, 21-May-2012 04:38 Email | Share | Bookmark
Sympathy and Punishment -- experimental work diary 6

The simulation experimental work notes (6) :sympathy and punish the introduction of long ago ,when I was a child ,I dreamed of becoming a scientist :the astronomical telescope to explore in the vastness of the universe ,in an electron microscope observation of magical atoms.
Curiosity ,is a human nature in the most pure ,the most beautiful element. Curious ,Nike Air Force One,is the creation of human civilization original ,the most durable power. Later ,I had to social science as my occupation ,but I still can not let go of his childhood dream .
I have a dream that one day the social scientists can bid farewell to the grand narrative research method ,I have a dream that one day the social scientists will establish its own laboratory ,I have a dream that one day the social scientists can also through the telescope and microscope to observe his object of study with HH today, when we sit in the ICSS ( Interdisciplinary for social science research center of Zhejiang University ) simulation lab, looking at the computer in the agent as we reproduce the prehistoric civilization of birth process ,as we return from Africa Canyon come out of the early human ancestors how to construct the social order ,I finally believe ,dreams can come true ,as long as we never give up ,only We should always strive for ,Air Force One Sale,dream will be come true !Society possible? In a typical game of public goods ,co-author X C through a r times amplification in all participants in the average distribution of M ,if M = X ,all participants of the gains of R will increase R times.
But if the M appeared in the rebel Y ,Friends must look at the boys have a girlfriend to tell whether well or not is really heavy...,do not contribute to C but to participate in the distribution of ( lift ) ,it can obtain more than partners higher net gain of NR = R-C. From Nash balanced perspective ,betrayal is a dominant strategy .
From the evolution of balanced ( ESS ) perspective, Y will invade X the composition of groups ,and ultimately replace the X. This is a very dismal results .It was based on such a theory background ,Simmel 100years agoonce asked: why the society possible ?( How is society possible ?) because ,More Details,human society is in fact built to resemble the public goods game on the basis of .
However ,a large number of the public goods game behavioral experiments did not support the hypothesis. The participants will largely exhibit cooperative tendency ,regardless of whether they know Nash balanced inference.
In other similar games ,such as &quot ;ultimatum game &quot ,&quot ;labor ;City Game &quot ;and &quot ;attack game &quot ;,participants also did not like the theoretical assumptions that it showed a single betrayal tendency.
There is no doubt that ,in real life people demonstrated the propensity to cooperation ,it is the basis of existence of human society .However ,the propensity to cooperation and the traditional theory of biological evolution and game equilibrium theory has generated enormous contradictions.
That many western researchers to this conflict is called human &quot ;prosocial mystery &quot ;( the Puzzle of Prosociality ) .Western scholars, recent studies have shown ,human cooperation tendency is dependent on being called a &quot ;strong reciprocal &quot ;( Strong Reciprocity ) or &quot ;altruistic punishment &quot ;( Altruistic Punishment ) behavior :in a society, if some people prefer to take personal cost to punish the cooperation of the Betrayer, can to some extent build cooperative social order.
However ,due to the punishment is cost ,it is reducing the Betrayer gains but also reduces the punisher fitness ( fitness ) ,http://www.nikesforce1.com/,this leads to a so-called &quot ;secondary social dilemma &quot ;( second-order social dilemma ) :Not to punish others than the punisher situation better circumstances ,to punish acts of evolutionary mechanisms? Harvard University social evolution research center of Novak ( Nowak ) Professor, explanation of the problem even in the sense of place of the cooperation tendency of interpretation itself.
Novak ( Nowak ) and others formed the study group in a study published in June 27th this year science ( Science ) magazine has the latest research results, through the introduction of a has the discretion of the so-called &quot ;non participants &quot ;(non-participants ) ,to punish the evolutionary mechanism were explained .
By Novak group provides computer evolution simulation shows that ,in a the size of M hybrid populations ,if there is a partner ,Y X betrayer ,non-participants Z and Punisher W ,punished behavior and cooperative behavior will appear a Symbiosis Evolution ,Adidas Jeremy Scott,thereby allowing the society to establish a stable and cooperative order.
But ,at the same time science magazine published by Bao Yide ( Boyd ) and Matthew ( Mathew ) on the research results of review articles have pointed out ,Novak et al. The model relies on some very strong assumptions ,for example ,the model of public products must be exclusive ,Otherwise ,&quot ;not involved in &quot ;it is no longer a possible strategy selection ;again, must assume that the non participation behavior in initial state is better than an act of betrayal ,but in doing so ,we have to face how to explain the evolutionary advantage of non participants problems ;finally, in Novak et al.
The model does not exist in dimensions economy they assumed that the benefits of cooperation ,which does not depend on the number of collaborators ,and this hypothesis is usually not practical public goods production .
For these reasons ,Bao Yide and Matthew argue ,Novak et al. The model not only explains a few consistent with these hypotheses of human cooperation ;therefore ,this is a &quot the narrow road to cooperation ;&quot ;( A Narrow Road to Cooperation ) .
&quot ;I saw heaven !&quot ;for how to solve the cooperation of human society order evolution the mystery ,ICSS in recent years has been taking a different approach to the study of western scholars .
Our study first, hope to provide a new perspective :in addition to punishment ,whether humans can also be other ways to sustain cooperation order ?Hume ,Smith ,Darwin ,as well as China Mencius et al are considered, for others the same Love and compassion are human lingering nature.
So ,sympathy and compassion on these surfaces and human survival competition be misfits behavioral characteristics through the harsh ,why natural selection has been retained ?Whether they might in the construction of the order of human cooperation plays a subtle role ,thereby and cooperative behavior achieve the symbiotic evolution ?If the answer is yes ,then we can explain not only compassion and pity the evolutionary advantage of problem ,but also for the evolution of human cooperation in order to find a different punishment mechanism of the new path .
Qualitative ponder tell us ,http://adidasjeremyscottde.com/,empathy can be as punishment for human social cooperation in order to support function. The mechanism should be easy to understand :compassion can increase partner gains ,thereby changing their and betrayal in the fitness of the relative difference.
This fact and punishment mechanism with different approaches but equally satisfactory results :punishment can be reduced the Betrayer earnings ,thereby changing their partners and the fitness of relative difference.
However ,this study has been slow to break through ,is that we have been unable to find suitable mathematical expression .In fact ,western researchers on Punishment research also once met us the same dilemma :on an evolutionary group game still lack proper mathematical characterizations .
Since 2003 ,western researchers in this respect to obtain major breakthrough ,they began to introduce the computer simulation technology to deal with this kind of problem. Thus ,we see that ,in recent years, through computer simulation and simulation to describe the evolution of the group game has become the forefront of the field ,but also the most basic research tool .
ICSS2003 years laterhas been closely watched and tracking western the research dynamic ,but because suffer from domestic really lack such technical talents ,which have to succumb to an inactive state.
I once pessimistic feeling ,only this, will make Chinese social science research with Western counterparts opened the 15-20distance.Dr. Wang Zhijian joined ICSS became an important turning point !Today ,maybe we can say none exaggeratively ,Zhejiang University interdisciplinary for social science research center is the only complete mastery western the social scientific research of new tools for the study of mechanism .
Dr. Wang Zhijian can at 1-2 days developed computer code ,repeat western researchers in this A new field of simulation experiment .We know ,in the field of natural sciences, any theory innovation is first built in to repeat what others have performed scientific experiments based on .
Otherwise ,how can you judge your idea is not others imagined ?Or ,how can you judge others idea is present defects need to be improved ?Dr. Wang Zhijian graduated from Zhejiang University physics department ,university period is a child prodigy ,&quot ;&quot ;once in the international first-class Journal of physics published academic papers and received the Zhu Kezhen prize of Zhejiang University .
His superb computer programming technology ,it is as the acme of perfection .Of course ,more important is ,study on the humanistic and social science academic research ability to understand and to love and devotion .
The study technology ,our idea can become a &quot ;additional sympathy of the public goods game model of &quot ;.After study hard ,basic model code was finally completed .As the center of current the computer is still relatively backward ,Zhijian estimated by Western studies similar to run 5000000 generationrequires at least 3-4months.
Therefore ,we first conducted A 500000 generation of test running .The day before yesterday night ,stay in the lab study suddenly gave me a call .He described our simulation experiments: if you do not press the &quot button &quot ;sympathy ;,this procedure is a traditional public goods game simulation ,so any mutation to partners are not in the rebel groups to survive, this is a classic &quot Nash &quot ;equilibrium ;world ,like a hell ,the whole world is &quot ;selfish devil &quot ;rule .
He said ,&quot ;when I decided to start human compassion ,I suddenly feel like I a God hh&quot ;.Miracles could happen ?From 1/1000 of the genetic variation from partners and compassionate carriers can change the world ?&quot ;in a second time elapse ,it seems in the remodeling of a God in Genesis Mythology HH.
In about the 1000 generation ,I suddenly found ,simulation models representing partners blue began to gather ,they occupied territory began to slowly expand HH computer is still running at a high speed ,Tang Sanzang on poetry,all of a sudden, my eyes bright ,I found that the blue occupied most of the area of computer ,I suddenly Feel a blank head HH I feel like mm I see heaven !&quot ;&quot ;&quot ;I see heaven !With Chi this sentence ,I know we study success !I immediately drove out to center laboratory mm one can see heaven .
Next, we will also !Face a variety of parameter robustness experiments. In addition ,I also according to Bao Yide and Matthew Novak model to design a criticism ,increasing returns to scale of the public goods game model ( since Boyd and Mathew criticism against Novak before the two models of non participants ,therefore our model does not exist in the two defects ) .
We will use a nonhomogeneous Ke cloth m Douglas production function to describe the model of increasing returns to scale in nature: the game total gains of R = rC ( X1.2Y0 ),wherein R is public goods magnification ,C partner contribution ,X and Y respectively collaborators and betrayer number ,X1.
2 as a collaboratoron revenue contribution rate, Y0 as traitors to the total income contribution rate. A basic judgement is ,if cooperation benefits is dependent on the number of partners increasing returns to scale ,the cooperation order formation and stability of A positive role.
Therefore ,it should not change the existing model of the basic conclusion .Of course ,according to my ideas ,if we in the model at the same time additional sympathy and punish two kinds of behavior ,cooperative order will be more stable .
We can see from the compassion deduce out the sense of morality as well as by the punishment deduce out the sense of fairness and justice in a sense ,the order of human society construction process plays an important role.
No doubt ,our sympathy and punishment as supporting human cooperation order evolution of two of the most important mechanisms ,including our modern life of human society moral system and the judicial system in the regulation of relationship between people on the importance of reappraisal and profound understanding mm simulation experiment .

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