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|Tuesday, 29-May-2012 01:02
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Northern Shaanxi culture - gmp110d's blog - the focus of Blog
The development of human culture ,in the final analysis is a big assimilation process. < ;> ;China is the world major ancient civilization .She has a long history ,vast territory ,numerous nationalities ,has 5000 years of civilization history.
In the long process of development ,various places ,each national culture is always in constant fusion assimilation ,and melting at tenacious display of different cultural characteristics .
The Loess culture ,is the culture of the Chinese nation in a unique cultural system. A cultural concept ,Loess loess culture what is " ;" ;?Say simply ,loess culture by " soil " ;the customary Title named .
Loess ground, was on the whole loess plateau a synonym ,but the area is too large ,inclusive of many provinces ,many ethnic groups ,and that many provinces ,To encounter,many national culture is not the same ,it does not use a concept to sum up.
Then ," ;soil " ;on what character ?According to the habitual concept and cultural attributes of the content and characteristics of Western Loess Plateau ,loess to refer to this specific area ,this area ,in the north of Shaanxi as the center ,Episode four beauty beauty,including connected with the Northwest Shanxi mountain ,Inner Mongolia In the South and Gansu ,Ningxia near the northern part.
This specific area ,we will call " ;loess plateau area of North Shaanxi area " ;or " ;" ;.This is loess culture area .In long term culture in the evolution process of the Loess Plateau ,most places ,its cultural form or stable in a pattern ,or completely assimilated ,has little variation ,few features ,such as the northern loess plateau near the Mongolia grassland area ,has been basically is animal husbandry culture ( or prairie culture ) ,and the eastern part of the Loess Plateau and the southern ,it has long been the Central Plains culture ( or farming culture assimilated ) ;loess plateau area is not, look from the history ,here is a relatively closed and the inner structure of foreign tight areas.
It north Erdos prairie ,south of eight hundred Qin Chuan ;East, is densely populated Jinzhong plains ;the west ,it is sparsely populated minority areas. The north-south and east-west in about one thousand kilometers of loess ground, although in Guanzhong ,Jinzhong ,prairie ,in several large geographical frame center ,but was independent of outside ,to become a " ;four with " ;place.
In addition to the needs of war and Border outside, outside rarely small here. From the internal perspective, for thousands of years to form the provide for oneself ,produced from the sale of the traditional production and life style, and that it had a great cohesive force ,and then enhance the regional independence.
For thousands of years, people on this land for generations living in the same natural environment, the economy ,transportation ,living, eating habits and customs are generally the same ,even the language are basically the same ;natural disasters ,man-made disasters caused by ,often also is their common destiny .
This multifaceted character, not only enhance the land of organic and unified ,and enhance its independence ,gradually formed its own cultural pattern ,this culture model is a kind of comprehensive cultural patterns ,and animal husbandry culture ,farming culture is significantly different, thus distinguishing it from the Loess Plateau elsewhere ,other cultures and strike out a new line for oneself ,become North China culture a prominent typical loess culture .
This belongs to regional culture ,but because it has the independence ,special and typical features ,making it far beyond the territorial limits ,and having a probe and covers national traditional culture The value and meaning.
These years, loess culture has received more and more attention at home and abroad ,many people involved in the land of cultural study ," ;northwest wind ," ;" ;" western film ;in mainland China caused a long literary trend, Chinese folk literature, folk art at home and abroad have extensive influence.
So people see loess culture ,it will be as an independent discipline to carry on the research ,the reason is many sided ,including social factors .But the Loess culture itself has value is the foundation of the Loess culture value .
Mainly display in two aspects: one is in the national culture the history of the important position ,it is a probe for national traditional culture research has special significance. < ;> ;< ;> ;two ,loess culture on early < ;> ;< ;> ;as everyone knows ,the upstream area of the the Yellow River River ,is the cradle of the Chinese nation ,is also the national culture is an important source.
In Loess Plateau of North Shaanxi area in the upper reaches of the Yellow River in the hinterland of China ,is the original human activity more concentrated area ,has in the morning unearthed an ancient human fossils in the " ;" ;" ," ;Huanglong ; and a variety of stone ,proved this adequately.
Mankind enters the new stone age ,the loess ground and natural environment for our ancestors to provide a more advantageous condition ,now here has been found in the Neolithic into the generation of sites have more than 3000 ,our ancestors here * acquisition and the hunting life, dense forest and a warm climate provided them with an abundance of food and habitat .
In the long life practice ,people from hunting to develop animal husbandry ,which is composed of a collection developed agriculture. Animal husbandry is to hunt a storage mode ,and agriculture is the collection object number a kind of artificial enhancement.
From human development history, early humans do not focus on river basin or the plains ,and more concentrated in plateau mountainous area .Because its have two: one is easy to collect ,for hunting ,easy living ;one is easy to escape the other beast attack ,convenient self survival .
Agricultural found around since 10000 to 12000years ago,the first glacial retreat ,the world agriculture in Southeast Asia .Thailand Fairy Cave found in soybeans ,measured at 970 BC.China about 6000 years ago,first in The Loess Plateau of northwest area development ( millet was the main crop ,also be Chinese agriculture ancestors ) .
Agriculture and rapid development ,for the survival of the human race has opened a new scope of operation ,greatly small tribes well rise here, and soon formed a powerful tribe alliance in legend .
The Yellow Emperor is the tribal Alliance chief. The Yellow Emperor had lived in Shanbei area ,it legend ,but the truth of history ,many later data also confirmed this point .the Yellow Emperor as records of carrier ,the Yellow Emperor had " ;two to Kongtong ,climb a mountain that ( " ;a in Northern Shaanxi Borrelia genus Hill ) shanhaiching Sea west by cloud :" ;two negative officials said the danger ,danger and two negative kill ,emperor is the manacles of Borrelia genus mountain ," ;( Borrelia genus hill in the northern territory of Suide county ) .
This saying ,will the negative tie tied in the Borrelia genus Song Ben mountains .Taiping Yulan also tells the story of this :" ;Han Xuandi on its rock ( the Qin and Han Dynasties in Northern Shaanxi area known as the " on " ;county ,stone was one person ,he is sent after the ankle ,foot binding ,machinery ,when people do not know, but the emperor asked the ministers, Yu Changan ,nothing can be known ,Liu Zizheng ( Liu Xiang ,at that time The court was the doctor ) said : This is the negative !Big surprise " ;from historical data .
In this area ,heritage and the legend of North Shaanxi area ,the tribal alliance was very powerful .The human many major invention is in that period to complete, such as textile ,metallurgy ,guide and so on .
Because of the tribal alliance was such a prosperous and powerful, finally defeated Chiyou, pacification of the Yan Emperor ,unified the Central Plains ,for our draw the outline of the original geographic territory .
The Yellow Emperor period ,is the Chinese civilization in the primary stage ,is also a prosperous era .said " ;pipe ,the Yellow Emperor rule the world ,the people not to lead to ,do not push away, do not make and become, can but stop " ;.
Three cemetery emperor Xuanyuan G code said that time " ;no cult ,no obscene goods, not desolate, without excessive ,disabilities, cities without a bum, son not North Tu ,couples do not back ,brother to righteousness .
" ;Huainan also said " ;the Yellow Emperor to rule a country ... ... The shrewd ,stars do not lose its line ,wind and rain season, cooked grain board ... ... " ;although the Yellow Emperor .
A real man, but he is also the Chinese ancestors of a whole image of generalization is the creation of the Chinese civilization ,the ancestors of the collective image of the embodiment .Thus ,since Han Dynasty ,Northern Shaanxi Hill Bridge was as a national shrine ,the people are Zhanbai .
Great Mr. Sun Zhongshan to compose the cloud :" ;the founding of 5000 years, China has created guidelines for car biography Xuanyuan .Chiyou ,chaos .Civilizations in the world, only me first !" ;Loess Plateau Area in the early history of civilization of 5000 years of Chinese civilization ,is the originator of history.
Later ,Emperor Huangdi tribe alliance it left in a noisy and migration in Central Plains ,its reason is controversial, but from the perspective of cultural anthropology study of this period of history ,the author thinks the overall migration was not entirely due to tribal dispute ,the development of agriculture and irrigation technology that is his main reason.
This and world history of human migration ,large transfer are of the same nature .In plateau mountainous area although agriculture is the earliest development area, but it is mountain ,water is not sufficient ,and impossible to implement irrigation .
Therefore ,in order to adapt to the further development of agriculture ,the ancestors left this loess ground ,open Beginning to Campagna area ,river basin transfer. As Huangdi tribe and Chiyou ,Yan the dispute ,when it is transferred to the Central Plains area ,and for the turf war .
< ;> ;< ;> ;three ,loess culture formation history of < ;> ;< ;> ;any kind of cultural pattern formation ,and the local historical background ,evolution ,national economic development together.
Loess culture and vice versa. From about 4000 agoHuangdi tribe alliance shifts to the Central Plains ,to the Shang Dynasty established the hundreds and hundreds of years, Loess Plateau of North Shaanxi area that became a away from the Central Plains the political center of remote strip ,except for some native tribes scattered scattered here ,little cause for concern .
These indigenous tribes still to form, with animal husbandry ,Adidas Jeremy Scott,hunting and primary agriculture for the means of survival ,or the mountains alone ,or in the neighbourhood of migratory restlessness ,lived a primitive ,since the full self-sufficient life.
But ,as they are still the tribal union of social form ,The printing industry to intermediary will be the development trend in the future century printing,together with a stable life, so after a long period of development ,to the Shang Dynasty metaphase, these indigenous tribes has grown up ,also established the " ;" ," ;ghost ;dogs ," ;" ;smoked meat porridge ( in " ;A few country ) .
The Shang Dynasty is an overlooked faction forces. This is the North Shaanxi Loess Plateau and a generation, formation ,we also called " ;Northern Shaanxi national " ;Northern Shaanxi people .
After Huangdi tribe union movement, in this loess ground grew up in permanent residents ,their descendants has been reached now. Therefore ,they and the Loess culture pattern formation has a direct relationship.
The thirteenth Century BC, Emperor Wu Ding had waged a war against the demons .Book of changes according to load ," ;Gao of ghost side ,three G ," ;" ;shock use of ghost side ,three years with tours to countries.
" ;to the Zhou Dynasty, Northern Shaanxi people power has developed very strong, Zhou Dynasty had two of ghost side ,captive chopped ghost side near twenty thousand. After this great shock ,ghost side completely disintegrated ,regrouped as a new tribe ,called as " ;Xian Yun ( " ;or " " ;large Rong ;.
I suspected ,the so-called " " ,namely ;Xian Yun ;" ;Quanrong " ;false ) tone .The Xian Yun ,Charon ,its powerful ,has dared to extend equal and the Zhou Dynasty .
Zhou Muwang, Quanrong has little to Zhou Dynasty render tribute to the conqueror ,and development for the militarily .According to after the Han Dynasty Xi Qiang load ," ;Rong enemy no tribute ,Wang Nai West Quanrong " ;.
Zhou Xuanwang five years ,Xian Yun clan has hit a lot ( now Shaanxi ,Changan ) was under the Mount Li to kill King Zhou .China first book of poems ,repeatedly described Yun and Zhou Dynasty the war situation .
From the Shang Dynasty to Zhou Dai this nearly a thousand years ,www.adidasjeremyscottde.com,North Shaanxi Loess Plateau has been in turmoil, North Shaanxi people in war time and the impact ,ceaseless disintegrate ,and constantly shrinking combination ;member ,and constantly add new members.
So after many times repeatedly, finally to the relatively fixed form down. This is mainly expressed in the form :political maintain relative independence ;to aid to agriculture ,nomadic ,hunting industry both ways ;social mobility but tends to be closed ;to maintain a relatively primitive religious habits and customs ;folk art has its own form and style.
Therefore ,until later in the week ,the Loess culture basic model has been formed. This is a kind of multivariate culture structure ,is animal husbandry ,hunting culture and farming culture after a long after the fusion of the synthetic culture .
At this confluence, economy The diversification of forms of the culture plays a decisive role in the nature ,and economic diversification and originated from tribal fusion .This synthesis of culture ,both from Chinese farming culture ,and different from other nomadic hunting tribe and hunting culture ,so it has its own characteristics in many aspects .
I kind of culture to the development of the Eastern Han Dynasty is fully mature ,gradually stabilized ,lasted until early twentieth Century. Here ,some historians would be raised doubt, think loess culture formation period probably late ,about in the Wei Jin Southern and Northern Dynasties period ,its reason is: the Wei and Jin Dynasties in Northern Shaanxi area is a tribe ,multi-ethnic blend a high tide period.
The author thought that ,only from the perspective of ethnology ,the Wei and Jin Dynasties is a multi ethnic fusion period climax period ,Hun origin ,even thriving here have established Bactria country ,and build country ,city .
And this fusion climax in Shanbei area history there have been many times .Since the Qin and Han Dynasties ,has more than 10 minorityoccupation attitude here seek hegemony. In the Northern Song Dynasty, Li Yuanhao had a family history of rulers built here the country ,land east from the Yellow River Jin Shan Gorge Gu Qi and Xi Fan area, covering almost the whole northwest area ,the rule of one hundred years this long.
These ethnic mix ,rule ,no doubt on the Loess culture has been influenced .But from a cultural perspective, the Loess culture basic framework ,the basic mode of Zhou Dai has been basically formed ,then look at the countless thousands of national division, innumerable war, impact ,only strengthened cultural diversity characteristics of loess ,loess cultural ingredients and rich connotation ,but not the basic structure change ,but not the mode of culture reconstruction.
In addition ,the Loess culture contained in the animal husbandry ,hunting culture ingredients ,nor is the national invasive results .Because Zhou Dai ,the Chinese nation and region also concentrated in the Central Plains area ,northwest area ,Guanzhong area ,including northwest Shanxi is Yagen Rong Di territory.
We called " ;the minority " ," ;" ;nomadic tribes ;,is standing in the traditional Chinese family ,Han .These nomadic tribes ,ethnic minorities ,some is invasive in North Shaanxi ,some was born and grew up on loess ground ,but is not yet fully Huaxia ,Han ethnic assimilation .
Interethnic assimilation ,is a very diffuse Long process ,often in imperceptibly .Through the gradual penetration and complete. In Loess Plateau of North Shaanxi area multi ethnic assimilation ,after three thousand years of fusion is completed.
Therefore ,not to be nomadic hunting culture in Loess culture ingredients as foreign cultural immersion .Said loess culture is a kind of distinction culture of agriculture and animal husbandry, hunting culture integrated culture.
More importantly ,the Loess Plateau of North Shaanxi area is remote and a mountainous area ,geographical environment ,traffic condition is poor, economic value is not high, together with minority tribes of the long-term infestation ,therefore has not the attention ,became a war whirlpool ,a prisoner of exile ,a field relatively isolated ,relatively inaccessible areas .
For thousands of years ,China earth original various tribal nation in the long term ,the fusion has reached the assimilation ,except now the minority ,the Han culture has basically achieved the Datong ,ran only loess culture exception.
Long-term close relatively ,make it still more retains its original features -- primitive culture ,ancient culture ,has become the national culture is a part of the three-dimensional information.
Therefore ,research Loess culture ,with a probe of Chinese national culture ,especially Chinese northern culture original traits .Four ,the basic characteristics of Loess loess culture summary of cultural characteristics ,mainly have the following several points :diversity ;ancient ;opposition .
These characteristics ,but also reflected in the economic ,psychological and other aspects .1,loess natural environment and economic patterns in modern Loess Plateau and Loess Plateau in ancient times ,geographical environment is not the same, from the geological structure, North Shaanxi loess belongs to a part of Erdos platform .
Erdos platform ,also known as the Shaanxi tectonic basin ,the climate is temperate ,at an elevation of 1200 to 2000 meters,two .Three million years ago, here have been stacked Wucheng loess ,Loess Plateau ,here covered with a thick layer of loess ,the average thickness of 70 meters, 200 metersthick .
About 5000 years ago ,the temperature here is very warm ,dense vegetation covered the land of mountains, wild animal is rich ,these ,for our ancestors to provide a good living environment ,distribution in the large number of Yang Shao culture ,MDG cultural sites ,showing us the loess ground prosperity until the Han Dynasty, here .
Was a lush plants place. According to Shihchi goods breed biographies contained ," ;Xi Youqiang Lee ,North Rong Zhai Zhi livestock ,animal husbandry as the world around " ;.( Qin Mohan early, North Shaanxi area for Zhai Guo in Han Dynasty .
) a review three county sparsely described in this land is " vast ;Yin ,Gu Jia " ," ;;aquatic lush ,ground appropriate product ;a connection, the flock of plug " ;at that time .
Here is the emperor of the six large stables .It seems ,at least in the Han Dynasty ,where the temperature is more humid ,forest vegetation is good ,stock raising here the economy also occupy a great proportion of ;agriculture although means has been widely used ,but the range is not very extensive ,mainly concentrated in the Sichuan Road flat ,almost no mountain farming.
But later changes have changed the environment. First of all is war .After one thousand years of national war ,civil strife, transforming it into a the vortex of war ,a border fortress.
In order to enrich the border ,from the Han Dynasty, the imperial court in here a lot with soldier stationed .according to Han ,Han Dynasty had seven migrations hither, only 120 B.C.once, on movement Kanto (east of Tongguan ) of more than 70 peopleto the area .
Settle down ;only one Time will be 600000 menmoved to here field. According to the load, the late Ming and early Qing time ,Qing Dynasty had Jiang evanescent ,Jinling big officials ,wealthy family exiled to northern Shaanxi area Dynasty .
The Ming Dynasty Yongle three years ,the court had large quantities of cattle destined for this area, stipulate every hundred soldiers must be equipped to cattle 40head,used for farming ;Ming Chenghua nine years ,North Shaanxi area of the Great Wall after the completion of the restoration ,here to the wide set of labor ,on the " ;wall of settlement are divided ,years of grain sixty thousand Shi Youqi " ;.
the Qing government to a more generous rewards to encourage people in the Great Wall reclamation ,and announced that three years do not pay taxes ,so a lot of agricultural development results ,at present it has received some benefits ;but generation after generation if this goes on ,but the destruction of North Shaanxi area ecological balance ,a large vegetation of grassland ,forest destruction ,water and soil erosion is serious with each passing day ,resulting in a desert south, engulfing farmland ,with lakes and rivers ,this loess ground is turned into an arid climate ,lack of water resources in the barren land ,natural disasters in loess layer is washed again and again, more and more thin .
Today ,near the Yellow River Coast Mountain hilly has almost become mountain .The change of the environment ,causing economic way here The change of grassland ,forest ,lose ,make stock raising lost long-term maintenance condition ,while agriculture gradually in this area economy to occupy the main position ;the second line of animal husbandry ,sideline into a " ;" ;.
However ,this area agriculture is still very backward state ,than human beings the primary agricultural strong many many thousands of years ,farming continued .Except few Sichuan country, generally no irrigation ,no recovery is the forceful measures ,still largely * day meal .
Production tools and methods are original ,the old Jue head is every farmer essential labor tool ,the author heard ,in twentieth Century six ,seventy time, here also heritage with cattle ,sheep meet Valley in the traditional way, due to lack of fertilizer ,fertilization is only symbolic.
According to the Yanan house records said ,here " ;a seeking land (three acres ) fertilization but hundred pounds ," ;" ;and the lack of cultivation fresh application ,human ,plowing and sowing is the handling of agricultural ,this is for Chak ,each having a after taking advantage of food home to harvest only return " ;.
The above description ,number reflects this area agriculture basic status .In general ,largely maintained in human primary characteristics of agriculture ,development There is little .Note ,that Yanan ,this area agriculture lacks irrigation ,fertilization is called " ;the " ,poor farming ;that this is a " ;inert " ;performance ,this is not the less ,fewer passengers .
Irrigation fertilization ,as the conditions .One is the lack of water resources ,.Here 10 years of 9 drought,soil erosion is very serious ,and each case must implement drought irrigation ,river water ,adidas Jeremy Scott Wings,the river is often dry ,from where ?One is geographical conditions are not favorable for irrigation .
The farmland for mountain ,often high out of the water for more than 10 metersor even tens of meters ,how the mountain water ?Even attracted to ,steep terrain ,some places even the person standing instability ,but also how to irrigate ?As for animal husbandry ,is still the area generally retains a economic means ,almost each and every family has produced ,but with the old " ;sheep plug " ," ;" ;a connection the scene has been compared ;,far away from here .
The general production undertakes for the unit with the family ,people generally are in the land of the ,where possible to feed a small amount of livestock ,hunting style prevalent ,but seasonal very strong, generally in the winter when slack season in Division of labor ,.
Body for the main family labor ( adult male ) devoted to farming, livestock grazing by children or elderly people .This is the North Shaanxi area economic structure diversity ,economic tradition and economic form seal character.
However ,the much trade to develop simultaneously with the ancient multi-industry simultaneously have some form of different ,here with the family for the economic production units. In ancient times, the average home or farm ,or grazing ,form a single ;development to modern times ,has few specializing in animal husbandry or specializing in agriculture farmers, unified into farming animal husbandry ,hunting ,run the integrated economic mode ,the nomadic forms almost completely wiped out .
Thus ,it is an unit with the family, engaged in minor production economy ,generally do not have a special labor association .2,the living conditions of loess in such natural condition by adopting the natural economy mode ,the production efficiency is low ,the harvest is very little .
The past year ,authentic Sichuan mu produce only 100kilograms,yield lower mountain in general ,only three ,fifty jins. In case of famine ,failures are common. However ,the per mu yield is low, more people more open up wasteland ,a variety of places ,to compensate for the low yield of North Shaanxi is owed .
Common saying ," ;taking a slope ,eat a nest " ;(dig ,dig ,namely wasteland ;nest :refers to the socket ) is this meaning .And the more the ground is much, yield is not guaranteed.
So vicious spiral results ,so this area has become a Guangshan bald mountain, all people can stand the place was opened up ,but the life of people ,thousands of years has been struggling food and clothing ,eating millet sugar dish ,dressed in rags ,in rags is the original common phenomenon ,poverty ,backward into this loess ground is an emblem of Qing Dynasty .
A man named Xu Yan Song in his letter to the court ,magistrate was a nonfiction article, record of North Shaanxi area living situation. He said :the world of Mo Qiong " ;people in extension ,the world of Fu Mo in extension .
.. ... Yanan county government .Kyushu ,barren house wounded through historical biography that was lost ... ... Thousands of miles of stone, four with heavy resistance ,difficult to the merchant ,travelling to the countryside .
Thus ,management way is to urge the vast ,http://deadidasporschedesign.com,powerful ,and Choi ,a millet to goods sold to silver ;bi World burrowing ,on tour to Khan, the only in the world of the poor people it is also ,to .
.. ... The people .No one has room ,while Yan Min only rubble barren place ;people is a food and clothing ,and Yan Min the red Baijie ,elbow Gel Heel wear ... ... . " ;the Zhi Fu adults description although there are some exaggeration ,but also can reflect the neighborhood poverty.
Just have a little need to correct ,namely the Yan Min " ;Bi Min " ,burrowing ;" ;soil and Wat " ;question. He said, is no doubt the traditional residential area -- cave .
It relates to loess ground residential culture. The prefect ,North Shaanxi people live because of poor cave is caused ,with the view of a few people. Off years ,a Japanese scholar had published an article ,the cave live as poor an illustration was carried, therefore causes of international disputes.
In fact ,Western Loess Plateau cave is a traditional residence ,have a long history ,the original inhabitants mostly as habitat .the two negative shanhaiching in legend :" ;the emperor made rock stone ,a " ,which " ;stone ;" ,I ;is a kind of kiln hole.
According to the experts research, the cave dwelling in Northern Shaanxi has over two thousand years history .That is to say ,during the period of Zhou Dai, North Shaanxi area living pattern has been formed .
( this can also be used as the basic model of loess culture formed in the Zhou Dai is an example .) here. People choose the cave as their residence ,in the cave with its many advantages ;one can obtain raw material locally ,is removed from the material to set the bitter; one is the optional sex is strong ,Adiads Porsche Design,want to live there ,good place to dig here can be suitable for the pickaxe ,social instability ,population mobility characteristics; a repair is simple ,low cost ;one is durable ,general cave can live for hundreds of years without repair ,stone cave live longer ,generally within three hundred years ;a thermal insulation performance and good heat insulation performance ,the local people called " " ;cool in summer and warm in winter ;so it seems ,cave is .
North Shaanxi area is most ideal for homes ,even in modern Northern Shaanxi people above ,cave or on buildings in general .In Loess Plateau of North Shaanxi area distribution of the population was sparse ,the Wuding River Basin is the area more densely populated areas ,through early twentieth Century, large village but twenty or thirty families there .
Folk song called Dragons main street ,beginning to sing: " ;Sun Jiaya ,Chuang-tzu ,Sheng ( fifteen households living dialect ,meaning the Lazarus ( dialect ) ,disperse .) " ;only 15 households.
Great Chuang-tzu ,little Chuang-tzu is less poor, often three to five households will be a village .According to statistics ,at the beginning of 70 time ,county of article square kilometer on average only two people .
In 1935 the long march of the red armyarrived in Wu Qi Town ,the town had 17 families.These villages located in this odd channel channel fork ,between village and village road distance ;Qi Horie ,the traffic is extremely inconvenient .
Country roads a narrow ,only as wide, along the ditch slope, euphemism twists ,commonly known as " ;mule path " ;;traffic mode to walking ,conditions in livestock transport .
Even married, mountain people generally do not take a sedan, but riding animals .There is exquisite ,the new wife at the wedding on the same day to eat and drink ,and some from the day before the wedding afternoon begins abstemious diet .
The reason is simple ;the way to urinate. Because of living the dispersion and traffic inconvenience ,but also caused the lack of a social communication .People have little chance to travel.
The past rural men life activities to local a few km range. Women are less to go out, have never entered the town .The author at the beginning of 70 time riding a bike to guard Zhang Quxiang county area, where the steep mountain road ,many local people on bikes only through ,and many roadside village also has not seen since the Traffic .
So ,social interactions are mostly through the local folk custom activities ,such as during the Spring Festival, pay New Year .Who has weddings and funerals, adjacent to the relatives and friends will be a ,met the talk, strangers began social activities ,including the dates included.
So ,the life of people formed a kind of closed type mode of life .They live in on this loess ground is hard work ,sunrise, sunset and breath ,year after year, generation after generation ,go round and begin again ,endless .
This is China life style .Because natural condition is poor ,people pay the labor cost is great ,the body back shoulder ,physical labor has become the main form of labor, there are saying " ;very poor ," ;" ;cries noisily ,run fast ,the stomach contained sour cabbage ,folk song to sing " ;" ;looking forward to next year this year ,next year also wear some rotten fur-lined jacket " ;" ;red cell ,Danny and a crescent, hard but plowman ;crops Chinese dinner * toil ,and the bitter and sweet ;white hill flowed sweat ,to the night her wife ( to his wife when the gods ," ;" ;Dongshan millet Mountain West Valley ,we in the Loess in the Loess " cry laugh ;.
.. ... This is the Chinese people for thousands of years of life to write clear .Five ,opposite ,uniform Loess loess culture culture structure ,and is composed of a plurality of the opposition to form a unified body .
This is still due to ethnic fusion causes .In history, there have been nearly 20 department,national here the wrong house good, part of which is the one of the Northern Dynasties ,is the area of indigenous ,such as Yun ,Charon ,Bai Di ,Tanguts ;part to distant places ,such as the Jurchens ,Tuyuhun ,Korea ,Kucha ;even some from Central Asia (see an Jianyuan three years of Deng Taiwei Temple Monument ) .
These local or foreign ministry ,family ,almost later became the area of long-term residents. Many national culture together ,many aspects of formation of opposition ,this is self-evident .
However ,time is really great ,omnipotent ,it is like a ablation medicine will slowly dissolve opposing sides together ,and then plastic out a new form .Of course ,the dissolution of plastic is a very long process .
Imagine ,a nation suddenly broke into another nation territory ,the first cause is social unrest and fighting then you live .,battle of Victor and vanquished in the same environment to live in ,year after year ,month after month ,gradually, history of conflict in both the mind has become the past ,so ,they began to trade ,began to talk about production ,start folk social ,began to intermarry married together -- started cultural exchanges and learn from each other .
This is the cultural blend. In this communion, each of the nationalities according to the objective need of life ,trying to play their respective cultural strengths at the same time ,but also strongly absorb accept others cultural strengths ,to make up for its deficiency ,in order to adapt to the society ,in this way, both opposite and unified ,one from each other formed by the opposition of a unified cultural patterns were then plastic out.
But one day ,a national cavalry set foot on this land ,then ,opposite ablation and plastic begins again ... ... . for thousands of years, many of the people ,the tribe is here again and again with a historical tragedy and comedy ,and plastic with a more inclusive national and cultural characteristics ,but different from any of the culture of a nation -- loess culture .
1,about race in Loess Plateau area population properties now it belongs to the Han ,but this is a long-term assimilation results ,trace its source is not the same. The loess to members of the nation complexity ,first created this area ethnic complexity.
For some reason on the idea ,the people here are unwilling to face the problem. But say objectively ,which nation is not over evolved ?Should say ,early Northern nation ,also is in the Qin Dynasty before the North Shaanxi area people ,mostly attributable to the Quanrong or Xian Yun clan.
Qin ,Han ethnic assimilation in the trend, in the multi ethnic fault in good ,in 1500 after a long process ,to the early Ming ,Northern Shaanxi area ethnic assimilation was completed later .
( there are still some minority involvement in the region ,such as Mongolia ,such as the Hui ,but its nature as a grazing disturbance and military, failed to enter the fusion process ,so it can not be included ,as for the assimilation of Qing dynasty ,Is a national ,also not included.
) although six hundred or seven hundred years ago ,but many national characteristics in Northern Shaanxi people still have reflected the different degree .For example ,North Shaanxi area was higher ,body .